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39 Work Factors Influencing the Transfer Stages of Soft Skills Training collective use. Individual training transfer reflects the individual trainees’ e orts to apply training content in their jobs. In turn, collective training transfer reflects the e orts of groups, such as work teams or units, to apply training content (Lee et al., 2014). Stage 3 includes individual performance improvements (Cheng & Ho, 2001; De Grip & Sauermann, 2013; Grossman & Salas, 2011; Salas et al., 2012; Taylor et al., 2009). The trainee behaves according to a norm or a performance requirement that leads to improved job-speci c or non-job-speci c individual performance. Job-speci c individual performance is also called work performance. Non-job-speci c individual performance is also denoted as commitment performance or extra-role performance and includes, for example, demonstrating e ort (see also Aguinis & Kraiger, 2009; Blume et al., 2010), efficacy, and emotional responses (Baumann et al., 2011) and facilitating either peer and team performance or an improved social network (Van den Bossche & Segers, 2013). Individual performance might subsequently transfer into improved organisational performance (stage 4). This transfer from individual to organisational performance improvement is called vertical transfer (Aguinis & Kraiger, 2009; Nijman, 2004; Saks & Belcourt, 2006) or micro-to- macro transfer (Tharenou et al., 2007). Organisational performance improvement includes both operational and nancial outcomes. Operational outcomes are related to the goals of an organisational operation, including productivity, product quality, quality of service, and innovation. Financial outcomes reflect the ful lment of the organisation’s economic goals. Typical nancial outcomes include sales growth, returns on invested capital, stock market outcomes and returns on assets (Jiang, Lepak, Hu, et al., 2012; Tharenou et al., 2007). The model in Figure 2.1 assumes that a transfer stage is influenced only by the preceding stage. Although some authors have studied the motivation to transfer as a prerequisite for behaviour (Axtell et al., 1997; Burke & Hutchins, 2008; Cheng & Hampson, 2008; Grossman & Salas, 2011; Knyphausen-Aufsess et al., 2009), to our knowledge, no research has addressed the full sequence of post-training e ects on individual and organisational performance. The transfer outcomes of each stage are likely influenced by (di erent) factors in the work environment. These factors are the focus of our subsequent literature review. We now present our study.

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